HISTORY AND CONCEPT OF JUNIOR AND SENIOR ROTC
he Reserve Officer Training Corps had its beginning in 1862 when
Congress passed the Morrill Act.
This Act provided grants of land for educational institutions which would include, among other things,
military science in their curriculum.
These institutions were known as Land Grant Colleges. Other laws were subsequently enacted to elaborate on the program.
The most significant of these was the ROTC Vitalization Act passed in 1964.
This Act enlarged the Junior ROTC Program from 252 Army sponsored schools to 1,200 and included Navy,
Marine Corps and Air Force Units.
From 1920 through World War II, all
able-bodied males under the age of 21 who attended a Land Grant College
were required to take two years of ROTC training. This requirement was
dropped in 1946. Other major changes have been made and continue to be
made, but the Services monitor the programs for curricular, numbers involved,
scholarship requirements and program management to ensure that a dynamic
and viable program is in place for all services.